Using a patented electromagnetic inductive technique that allows measurement without any requirement for either electrodes or ground contact, the EM31-MK2 Ground Conductivity Meter maps soil materials, groundwater contaminants or any subsurface feature associated with changes in conductivity. With this inductive method, surveys can be conducted over any surface conditions, including those with high-resistivity materials such as sand, gravel, asphalt, permafrost and sea-ice. Ground conductivity (quad-phase) and magnetic susceptibility (in-phase) measurements are recorded directly onto an integrated Archer 2 field computer. The field computer provides many features for enhanced data collection including Bluetooth wireless communication, internal GPS receiver, real-time data graphics, and compatibility with third party applications. The effective depth of exploration is about six metres from the instrument, making it ideal for environmental and engineering site characterization. Important advantages of the EM31-MK2 over conventional resistivity methods include: speed of operation; high-volume, continuous data collection; high spatial resolution of data; and the precision with which small changes in conductivity can be measured. Additionally, the in-phase component is particularly useful for the detection of buried metallic structure and waste material.